The NFA defines who can own a Title II firearm as a natural person, corporation or trust.... When an individual makes application to own a Title II firearm they are the only person who can be in possession or have access to the firearm. This creates a problem for many individuals who are married, have others who know the combination or how to gain access to the items, or want to allow others to use the firearms, even in their presence.
Joshua Prince has written and excellent analysis of the case law surrounding constructive possession and the US v. Turnbough case which stated that the Government may establish constructive possession by demonstrating that the defendant exercised ownership, dominion or control over the premises in which the contraband is concealed. Joshua goes on the state that if a spouse or other person does have the combination to the safe where the NFA firearms are kept it would be virtually impossible for the prosecutor to show that the other individual knowingly has the power to exercise dominion and control over the firearms.
The real problem occurs when another does have access to the items or can exercise dominion and control over the NFA firearm because the prosecutor can then charge that individual with constructive possession. In US v. Turnbough, an illegal firearm was in Turnbough's home and the court of appeals found that a reasonable jury could have found that he, his live in girlfriend, and her child could conclude that all three parties exercised dominion and control over the gun and the possession could be either sole or joint.
While there are not any constructive possession cases involving NFA firearms this does not mean that the BATFE could not bring a charge of constructive possession against a spouse or other person who could exercise dominion and control over an NFA firearm.
Remember that there is no intent element to violate the NFA. Like speeding, you do not have to intend to speed to be charged with speeding.
So how can you protect yourself, your family, and your friends? If you use a NFA trust or other allowable business entity to own the items, you can allow others to be in possession, use, purchase, and know how to access the firearms.
There are many downsides to using a business entity to own NFA firearms. In most states, there are yearly state fees associated with the entity. In addition, you must deal with loss of privacy, EIN's, and federal tax compliance for the entity. The ATF only recognizes those on the official state records as having access to the items. The entity will be subject to probate upon the death of any owner. There are typically costs associated with updating the state records to allow for changes in possession and it takes time to make these changes. There are no provisions in a business entity to deal with incapacity or death in determining whom the beneficiaries are, where they live, if they are qualified to receive the items, directions on how to properly transfer the ownership and items, and most importantly if the beneficiary is mature and responsible enough upon your death that you would want to put the firearms in their hands.
Because a trust deals with these items on a regular basis, a NFA Trust (different than the traditional Quicken, Legal Zoom, or lawyer prepared revocable trust) can provide the ability to easily add, remove, or modify the users, owners, and purchasers as well as deal with the unique issues of firearms ownership that are not present in other types of ownership.
We work with more than 75 lawyers in over 43 states that can help you design a NFA trust to meet your specific needs and goals. Our NFA trust does not use a schedule of assets so your other firearms that are placed in the trust do not become know to the ATF upon the purchase of a Title II firearm from a Class 3 dealer or individual.
If you have any question on how a NFA trust can help you purchase Title II firearms and protect your family and friends from the criminal penalties associated with improper possession, purchase, use, or transfers please contact a Gun Trust Lawyer® and we would be happy to answer your questions. In Florida please contact our Florida Gun Trust Lawyer®.